The name of the religion is Islam, which comes from an Arabic root word meaning "peace" and "submission". Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one's life by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed. The same Arabic root word gives us "Salaam alaykum" (Peace be with you), the universal Muslim greeting.
A person who believes in and consciously follows Islam is called a Muslim, also from the same root word. So, the religion is called "Islam" and a person who believes in and follows it is a "Muslim".
Allah is the proper name for Almighty God, and is often translated merely as "God". Allah has other names that are used to describe His characteristics: the Creator, the Sustainer, the Merciful, the Compassionate, etc.
Muslims believe that since Allah alone is the Creator, it is He alone that deserves our devout love and worship. Islam holds to a strict monotheism. Any worship and prayers directed at saints, prophets, other human beings or nature is considered idolatry.
The Book that God gave to His Messenger through revelation, and which his messenger passed on to the Humanity in the form in which we know it today. The internal evidence provided by the Qur'an itself, as well as historical research, proves that the original Quranic text has not been changed or is likely to be altered in the future. This is a unique attribute of the Qur'an and is not shared by any other revealed book now extant. The Qur'an embodies the deen (The System of life) revealed to the earlier Anbiya (Messengers of God) in its true and perfect form. The mode of expression of the Quran is neither poetry nor prose, but has its own style and rhythm. It has a rare beauty and grandeur, and is sublime.
Man is a moral being , capable of distinguishing between right and wrong, and free to choose either. However, he finds that it is not easy to distinguish good from evil, nor is it easy to choose the good, when it is known.